*The independent variable is the factor that is manipulated or controlled in an experiment to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The dependent variable, on the other hand, is the outcome or response that is measured or observed in response to changes in the independent variable.*

**What is Independent Variable?**

The independent variable and the dependent variable are fundamental concepts. The independent variable is the variable that researchers intentionally manipulate or control to observe its impact on the dependent variable. It is considered the cause or driver of change in an experiment.

For example, in a study investigating the effect of different doses of medication on blood pressure, the independent variable is the dosage of the medication because it is deliberately altered to see how it influences blood pressure.

**What is Dependent Variable?**

In contrast, the dependent variable is the variable that researchers measure or observe to determine the outcomes or changes resulting from the manipulation of the independent variable. In the medication example, the dependent variable would be the blood pressure measurements taken after administering each dosage.

The dependent variable is considered the effect or the response to changes in the independent variable and is used to draw conclusions about the relationships between variables in a study.

**Dependent Variable vs Independent Variable**

The main differences between dependent and independent variables are given below:

Aspect | Independent Variable | Dependent Variable |

Definition | The manipulated or controlled factor that is intentionally changed in an experiment. | The measured or observed outcome that responds to changes in the independent variable. |

Role | Considered the cause or driver of change. | Considered the effect or response to changes in the independent variable. |

Example | In a study on the effect of sunlight exposure on plant growth, the amount of sunlight is the independent variable. | In the same study, the plant’s growth (height or number of leaves) is the dependent variable. |