*The key difference between energy and work is that energy is a measure of a system’s capacity to do work while work is the exertion of energy to accomplish a task or achieve a goal.*

**What is Energy?**

Energy is a fundamental concept that represents the capacity of a system to perform work. It comes in various forms and can be transformed from one form to another.

The SI unit of energy is the joule (J).

Energy exists in several forms, including kinetic energy, which is associated with the motion of an object; potential energy, related to an object’s position or condition; thermal energy, arising from the random motion of particles in a substance; chemical energy, stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules; and electromagnetic energy, carried by waves of electric and magnetic fields.

The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, only converted from one form to another. This principle underpins many aspects of physics, including understanding the behavior of systems, the efficiency of processes, and the interconnectedness of different energy forms in various natural phenomena.

**What is Work?**

Work is a measure of energy transfer that occurs when a force is applied to an object, causing it to move a certain distance in the direction of the force. It is calculated as the product of the force applied and the displacement of the object, both measured in the same direction.

**Mathematically, work (W) is expressed as:**

W = F * d * cos(θ)

where F is the force, d is the displacement, and θ is the angle between the force and displacement vectors. When the force and displacement are in the same direction (θ = 0), the maximum work is done, while no work is done when the force and displacement are perpendicular (θ = 90 degrees). The SI unit of work is the joule (J). Work is an essential concept in understanding the transfer and transformation of energy in various physical systems, such as mechanical, electrical, and thermal processes.

**Energy vs Work**

The basic difference between energy and work is given below:

Aspect | Energy | Work |

Definition | Energy is the capacity to do work or cause change. | Work is the transfer of energy from one system to another, resulting in a displacement along a force’s direction. |

Units | Joules (J) | Joules (J) |

Nature | Energy is a scalar quantity. | Work is a scalar quantity. |

Associated with | Energy is associated with an object’s state. | Work is associated with a force acting over a distance. |

Transfer and Conversion | Energy can be transferred between different forms and systems (e.g., potential, kinetic, thermal, etc.). | Work involves the transfer of energy from one system to another, often leading to a change in energy form. |

Calculation | Energy can be calculated based on an object’s mass, velocity, height, etc. | Work is calculated as the product of force and displacement, W = F * d * cos(θ), where θ is the angle between the force and displacement vectors. |

Significance | Energy is a fundamental concept in physics and is conserved in isolated systems (Law of Conservation of Energy). | Work is a measure of the energy transfer that occurs when a force causes a displacement. |

Examples | Examples of energy include kinetic energy, potential energy, thermal energy, etc. | Examples of work include lifting an object against gravity, pushing a box across the floor, etc. |