Difference Between Plant Cell And Animal Cell

The key difference between plant cell and animal cell is that plant cells feature a cell wall, chloroplasts, various specialized plastids, and a sizable central vacuole while animal cells possess centrosomes and lysosomes, which are absent in plant cells.

What is Plant Cell?

A plant cell is a fundamental unit of structure and function in plants. It is a eukaryotic cell, which means it has a well-defined nucleus enclosed within a membrane. Plant cells make up the tissues, organs, and ultimately the entire plant. These cells have various organelles and structures that enable them to carry out essential functions in the plant’s life processes.

Plant cells play a crucial role in photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into energy-rich molecules, primarily glucose, and oxygen. This energy production is vital for the growth and development of plants. Plant cells also provide structural support to the plant and help transport water and nutrients throughout the organism.

What is Animal Cell?

An animal cell is a type of eukaryotic cell that is found in animals and humans. It is one of the fundamental building blocks of animal tissues and organs. Animal cells, like all eukaryotic cells, have a defined nucleus enclosed within a membrane and various organelles that carry out specific functions within the cell.

 Some of the key organelles in animal cells include the nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and more. These cells lack a cell wall, which is a key distinction from plant cells. Animal cells are primarily involved in various physiological processes and are responsible for the functioning of the animal organism.

Plant Cell vs Animal Cell

The major difference between plant cells and animal cells is given below:

CharacteristicPlant CellAnimal Cell
Cell ShapeSquare or rectangularIrregular or round
Cell WallPresentAbsent
Plasma/Cell MembranePresentPresent
Endoplasmic ReticulumPresentPresent
NucleusPresent and lies on one sidePresent and lies in the center
LysosomesPresent but rarePresent
Golgi ApparatusPresentPresent
VacuolesFew large or centrally positionedUsually small and numerous
CiliaAbsentPresent in most cells
MitochondriaPresent but fewer in numberPresent and numerous
Mode of NutritionPrimarily autotrophicHeterotrophic

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